FREE Shipping On Orders $100 Or More! (US addresses only)

Have A Question?
Call Toll-Free: 1-888-528-0559

Vinpocetine, Natural Brain-Boosting Supplement by Targeted Nutrients

Regularly $39.95 per bottle – On sale now for:

Buy 12 for only $299.40 (Reg. $479.40)

that's only $24.95 per bottle, you save $180.00

Buy 6 for only $164.70 (Reg. $239.70)

that's only $27.45 per bottle, you save $75.00

Buy 3 for only $90.60 (Reg. $119.85)

that's only $30.20 per bottle, you save $29.25

Buy 1 for only $32.95 (Reg. $39.95)

You save $7.00 off the regular $39.95 price

Expert Quotes
Supplement Facts

Vinpocetine: A Sure-Fire Natural Cure
for Memory Loss

Is there really a way to reverse memory loss and restore mental clarity, simply by triggering the brain cells to produce more ATP? What If I told you this safe, natural substance has been a prescription memory drug in Europe for over 20 years, but much to the chagrin of the FDA, it can now be sold in the U.S. as a dietary supplement.

As the famous cowboy movie star John Wayne grew older, he appeared sharp as a tack in his television appearances and movie roles. But privately, he complained of memory loss.

What was particularly aggravating to him was his growing inability to remember the names of people – sometimes even people close to him.

As the story goes, one day he was attending a football game with his best friend of over 30 years and director of many of his movies, John Ford.

As he looked across the stands, he saw two acquaintances coming toward him. He was thrilled that he remembered both of their names, and would be able to introduce them to Ford without embarrassing himself.

"Bob, Mary," he exclaimed with obvious relish and a sweeping gesture of his hand as they approached their seats near his, "I'd like you to meet..." And then his voice trailed off as he realized he had just forgotten the name of his best friend...John Ford.

The Safe, All-Natural Cure for Memory Loss

Were John Wayne still alive today, he'd be very happy to know that a safe, all-natural solution for mild to moderate memory loss is now available.

This supplement is called Vinpocetine, and it is widely known for its astonishing ability to boost brain power, enhance concentration and retention, and sharpen mental focus and performance without any significant negative side effects.

Bernd Wollschlaeger, M.D., a Florida-based board-certified family physician who is also the associate editor of the Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association (JANA), says Vinpocetine is one of the mainstays of his practice when it comes to patients complaining of memory loss and mild cognitive impairment.

According to Dr. Wollschlaeger:

"All of the peer-reviewed studies I've seen found a significant improvement in cognitive function with Vinpocetine.

Until Vinpocetine, we physicians have had nothing to prevent cognitive decline. We only have drugs to treat after the fact. With safe, natural Vinpocetine, patients see comparatively rapid improvement in memory functions as well as enhancement of learning and recall and overall alertness.

Results are often seen in only seven to ten days. We don't have to wait four or six or eight weeks, like with Gingko Biloba, to see results.

What's more, there have been more than 100 clinical studies conducted on Vinpocetine, with over 30,000 patients, proving its safety and effectiveness."

Viagra for the Brain

According to Dr. Ray Sahelian, M.D., author of the popular book, Mind Boosters: A Guide to Natural Supplements that Enhance Your Mind, Memory, and Mood:

"Vinpocetine is chemically related to and derived from vincamine, a natural alkaloid found in the periwinkle plant. It was introduced into clinical practice in Europe more than two decades ago for its highly beneficial role in cerebrovascular disorders and related symptoms. But because it is derived from natural sources it is now widely used in the U.S. as a nutritional supplement for memory support and cognitive enhancement."

Dr. Ward Dean, M.D., co-author of the bestselling books Smart Drugs and Nutrients and Smart Drugs II, says Vinpocetine is like "Viagra for the brain."

He states, "It's one of the few cognitive enhancers that I actually notice a distinctly positive and uplifting difference when I take it."

Dr. Dean says that Vinpocetine facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (i.e., blood flow to, and throughout, the brain). "What's more," he notes, "In brain cells it steps up the production of ATP, the cellular energy molecule, and increases utilization of glucose and oxygen, the brain's two most critical fuels."

According to Dr. Steven Bratman, M.D., director of The Natural Pharmacist in Fort Collins, CO, and author of the Natural Health Encyclopedia and The Natural Health Bible, "Vinpocetine aids memory and mental function, not only with mild memory loss and age-related cognitive impairment, but also with Alzheimer's and related conditions. Most people begin to notice clearer, sharper thinking and recall within a few short days to a few short weeks time."

In her book, Vinpocetine: Boost Your Brain Power With Periwinkle Extract, author Dr. Beth M. Ley writes:

"Research shows that Vinpocetine provides an astonishing array of benefits. It has a very powerful stimulating effect on memory. In Europe it is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders that can cause such symptoms as memory loss, stroke, dizziness and even cerebro-vestibular (inner-ear) problems. Vinpocetine has even been demonstrated to improve visual acuity – that is to say, eyesight – in 70% of subjects tested."

Science writer James South, M.A. notes that recent medical research demonstrates Vinpocetine's almost miraculous ability to boost the quality of thinking and planning carried out by the cerebral cortex.

He writes, "Another key benefit from Vinpocetine derives from its activating effect on the noradrenaline nerve cluster in the reticular activating system called thelocus coeruleus. Olpe and co-workers have shown that Vinpocetine is one of the most effective activators of locus coeruleus neurons, thus making it a true 'cognition enhancing' agent."

Proven to Boost Memory, Enhance Cognitive Function
and Reduce Dementia

According to Dr. Ray Sahelian, M.D., an ardent Vinpocetine advocate, "There have been quite a few studies demonstrating the positive effects of Vinpocetine on brain function."

For example, he notes that:

"Researchers at the University of Surrey in England administered Vinpocetine to patients suffering from mild to moderate dementia. In this placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind trial 203 patients received Vinpocetine every day for 16 weeks.

They were given either 10 mg doses of Vinpocetine three times a day, 20 mg doses of Vinpocetine three times a day, or placebo three times a day.

Significant cognitive improvements were found in the active treatment groups compared to the placebo groups. Interestingly, the patients on the 10 mg doses performed even better than those on the higher 20 mg. doses."

What's more, according to Dr. Sahelian, "In another double blind clinical trial, Vinpocetine was shown to offer significant improvement in elderly patients with chronic cerebral dysfunction. Forty-two patients received 10 mg. of Vinpocetine three times a day for thirty days, then 5 mg. three times a day for sixty days. Matching placebo tablets were given to another forty patients for the ninety-day trial period. Patients on Vinpocetine scored consistently better in all cognitive evaluations."

Other studies have demonstrated Vinpocetine's astonishing beneficial effects for stroke victims. For example, one study demonstrated a 42% reduction in brain injury for stroke patients who were given Vinpocetine [Acta Pharm Hung. 2002;72(2):84-91].

And another study demonstrated that Vinpocetine interrupts the various stages of the ischemic cascade during strokes, meaning it helps prevent the ongoing damage to the brain that results from the stroke itself [Ideggyogy Sz. 2003 May 20;56(5-6):166-72].

How Vinpocetine Works to
Boost Your Memory and Mental Clarity

George Foss, a long-time consultant to the nutritional supplement industry, and former general manager of Kayser Nutrition, explains how Vinpocetine works, and why it has become the world's #1 best-selling all-natural brain-boosting supplement:

"Vinpocetine's astonishing beneficial effects on memory, recall and mental acuity occur principally because of its ability to bring age-related declines in the cellular energy functions of the brain back to more youthful levels.

It does so by literally nourishing the brain. First, it increases blood flow to the brain through mild dilation of the blood vessels, which in turn dramatically boosts glucose and oxygen uptake by the brain's 100 billion neurons. The neurons thrive on this increased glucose and oxygen, which in turn is used to produce prodigious quantities of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is pure cellular energy.

This increased production of ATP within the brain quite rapidly boosts the metabolism, or energy activity of the entire brain back to the levels of a young adult.

Finally, this increased energy activity triggers two crucial functions in the brain: increased cell-to-cell communication for quicker thinking, and repair and/or replacement of damaged brain cells for optimal brain function."

Experts say Vinpocetine boosts the circulation of oxygen-rich and glucose-rich blood to the brain so effectively it almost immediately results in a vastly increased ability to concentrate and focus.

In fact, in one recent clinical study, 62% of healthy subjects exhibited significant short-term memory improvement only one hour after taking 40 mg. of Vinpocetine [Eur J Clin Pharmacol1985;28(5):567-71].

What's more, recent research has demonstrated that Vinpocetine also boosts circulation of oxygen-rich blood to the eyes, thereby improving vision and eyesight disorders. In fact, in one study, Vinpocetine improved vision in 88% of test subjects [Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26(10a):1969-72].

Vinpocetine also aids in the delivery of oxygen saturated blood to the inner ear, improving hearing as well as alleviating many inner-ear problems including tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and vertigo (dizziness) [AF DR 28, 1977-80].

Get that Extra Mental Edge

So if you're like me and you feel the need for that extra mental edge from time to time, or if you're reaching that age where you notice your cognitive abilities are slipping a bit and you want to provide your body with the nutrition it needs to get you back on top of your mental game, then you just might want to try safe, natural Vinpocetine.

Its long-term safety has been demonstrated in medical studies to be second to none. And with over 100 medical studies backing it up, you can rest assured of its effectiveness.

How to Use Vinpocetine

Most clinical trials on Vinpocetine have involved the use of doses ranging from 10 to 30 mg. per day. These studies have demonstrated that while lower doses of 10 to 20 mg. per day can be very helpful, in virtually every case it has been the 30 mg. per day dosage (i.e., 10 mg. taken three times a day) that has exerted the greatest therapeutic benefits in terms of boosting memory, concentration and mental acuity.

While the beneficial effects of Vinpocetine are quite noticeable after only a few days of use (many people literally "feel the difference" the very first day), the full range of therapeutic benefits associated with Vinpocetine usage are often not derived until it has been used on a daily basis for a full 90 days.

In other words, while you'll notice increased mental energy almost immediately, the effects actually get better and better over the course of the first 90 days of use, as damaged areas of the brain are healed, and stronger cell-to-cell communication in the brain is established.

Click here for your special deal on Vinpocetine…

Where to Find 99.9% Pure,
Pharmaceutical-Grade Vinpocetine

You found it!

Targeted Nutrients prides itself on supplying only the significantly higher-quality pharmaceutical-grade Vinpocetine straight from Europe, instead of the inferior and often adulterated Chinese-produced Vinpocetine found in most health food stores today.

While most health food stores and internet vendors sell inferior Chinese-produced Vinpocetine, we're happy to bring you this powerful, brain-boosting nutrient in the significantly higher-quality pharmaceutical-grade straight from the leading European manufacturer.

This is the same pure, high-grade European Vinpocetine that has been demonstrated in clinical trials to boost memory, mental clarity and re-call by up to 62%!

While pure, pharmaceutical-grade Vinpocetine is generally more expensive, frequently selling for $39.95 per bottle for just 30 capsules (i.e., well over a dollar a day for a 30 day supply), we're offering a special, one-time, money-saving, get-acquainted deal for visitors of this website.

Just click the "Green" button below and learn how you can obtain pure, pharmaceutical-grade Vinpocetine for as little as $24.95 per bottle containing a full 90 capsules per bottle!

IMPORTANT: Pharmaceutical grade Vinpocetine from Targeted Nutrients is not available in stores but only through this special offer. Just click the "Green" button below to order today! Or if you prefer, call 1-888-528-0559 and speak to a Customer Service Representative.

Don't delay even one more day. Order The Sure-Fire Natural Cure for Memory Loss today, with absolutely no risk.

Click here for your special deal on Vinpocetine…

Expert Quotes

What the Experts are saying about Vinpocetine...

87% Improvement in Cognitive Function

"Researchers have been eager to determine whether vinpocetine has any value in memory enhancement. The answer is a definitive yes. In an Italian study of 22 elderly patients suffering from central nervous system degenerative disorders, 87 percent experienced improvement in cognitive function after taking 10 mg of vinpocetine daily for 30 days, followed by 5 mg three times daily for 60 days. No significant side effects were noted.

…While many studies focus on the effects of vinpocetine for patients suffering from various degenerative conditions, researchers have also inquired into the effects of this agent in healthy individuals. In a German study, 40 healthy volunteers were given 40 mg of vinpocetine daily for two days. This brief course resulted in a significant improvement in memory as assessed by the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test. This study suggests that in normal, healthy people, vinpocetine can enhance memory quickly.

Vinpocetine may not be a cure-all, but it clearly demonstrates value in enhancing brain function and cognitive ability in many cases. As we strive to slow the aging process and fight back the deterioration of the brain and mind, vinpocetine stands to be one of the valuable agents we use for wellness as we grow older."

– Chris Kilham, ethnobotanist, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Lowers Blood Viscosity!

"Vinpocetine lowers blood viscosity in patients with cerebrovascular disease, has significant vasodilating properties, decreases platelet aggregation, and increases and maintains erythrocyte flexibility under oxidative stress, all of which are potentially beneficial in cerebrovascular disease. Vinpocetine causes a selective increase in cerebral blood flow and increases cerebral metabolic rate."

– Alternative Medicine Review, Volume 7, Number 3

Potent Anti-Inflammatory Action!

"Chronic inflammatory processes are related to conditions as distinct as atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, systemic lupus, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The continuous use of anti-inflammatory agents is required to treat these conditions. However, the long-term use of these drugs creates an additional challenge: the high frequency of severe side effects. Currently, there are great efforts to discover anti-inflammatory drugs that can be used for long periods with minimal side effects. In PNAS, Jeon et al. show that Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor known for its minimal side effects and great potential in cognitive enhancement, also has potent anti-inflammatory action."

– Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vinpocetine as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, PNAS June 1, 2010 vol. 107 no. 22 9921-9922

Phenomenal Brain Benefits!

"Vinpocetine taken orally is easily absorbed, and it can improve blood supply to the brain...increase oxygen and glucose use by the brain...improve brain tolerance to hypoxic injury...increase vasodilation response to hypoxia...maintain optimal energy of healthy brains...maintain normal coagulation of blood...maintain healthy levels of some neurotransmitters, and promote healthy attention, memory and concentration."

– Life Extension Foundation

Stimulates ATP Production!

"Vinpocetine increases blood circulation in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase. It also stimulates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, the substance that provides energy in neural cells. This is significant since ATP availability tends to decrease with age and that decrease is a major cause of neural cell death. Vinpocetine is also valued for its nootropic effects, which means that it is considered to be a memory enhancer. Vinpocetine also improves oxygen and glucose utilization in the brain.

In addition to increasing blood flow and neurotransmission in the brain, vinpocetine also exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Studies have shown that the presence of vinpocetine in the brain deters the formation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation."

– WiseGeek.com

Improves Visual and Auditory Perception!

"Vinpocetine is a good cognitive enhancer. It improves visual and auditory perception similar to pregnenolone. My patients appreciate the effects better after a few days of therapy."

– Dr. Ascanio Polimeni, M.D., Ph.D., Medical Director of Anti-Aging Center of Rome and Milan, Chairman of Scientific Advisory Board of Italian Association of Anti-Aging Medical Doctors

Works for Young and Old Alike!

"Vinpocetine, the extract of the periwinkle plant, has hundreds of clinical trials demonstrating its effectiveness for both the elderly and younger individuals. These studies show this important botanical has the following effects: Increase cerebral blood flow...improve cerebral metabolism...increase use of glucose and oxygen in the brain...increase serotonin levels which is important for sleep, appetite and mood regulation...benefit tinnitus and other causes of impaired hearing...benefit conditions related to insufficient blood flow to the brain, including vertigo, sleep difficulties, mood changes and depression."

– Beth M. Ley, author, Vinpocetine: Revitalize Your Brain With Periwinkle Extract

Raises Brain Energy Levels!

"Clinical research indicates that Vinpocetine has a positive effect upon damaged areas of the brain and raises brain energy levels. But perhaps most importantly, Vinpocetine can protect against brain arteriosclerosis, which if left unchecked, can lead to strokes."

– International Anti-Aging Systems

Boosts Brain Metabolism!

"The effects of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow, brain metabolism, memory functions, and its neuroprotective action have been confirmed in the past years in numerous animal experiments and human studies... Numerous clinical studies indicated that vinpocetine is safe during long-term administration. No serious side effects related to the treatment have been found."

– R. Maslarova, Chemical Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria

Inhibits Platelet Aggregation!

"Experiments with vinpocetine indicate that it can dilate blood vessels, enhance circulation in the brain, improve oxygen utilization, make red blood cells more pliable, and inhibit aggregation of platelets."

– Ray Sahelian, M.D., Mind Boosters: A Guide to Natural Supplements that Enhance Your Mind, Memory, and Mood

Viagra for the Brain!

"Vinpocetine is known to enhance cerebral blood flow, which boosts the amounts of life-giving (and energy-producing) oxygen and glucose delivered to the brain cells. In this regard it's not unlike a well-known drug that is known to enhance blood flow to another part of the body. No wonder vinpocetine is called 'Viagra® for the brain,' especially when you consider that the brain is, after all, the body's most important sex organ.

Biochemically, vinpocetine's action is similar to that of Viagra in causing the smooth-muscle cells of arterial walls to relax, thereby facilitating vasodilation. But vinpocetine also has other beneficial modes of action: it improves oxygen utilization by the brain cells; it makes red blood cells more pliable, thereby making the blood 'thinner' (less viscous) and improving its flow properties; and it inhibits platelet aggregation, the process that induces the formation of blood clots. All these things protect our brain cells from harm and help us safeguard those precious mental marbles."

– Will Block, Nutritional Science Journalist, researcher to Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw, authors of the bestselling book, Life Extension

Restores Memory!

"Vinpocetine appears to improve a person's ability to acquire new memories and to restore memories that have been disrupted"

– Dr. Victor DeNoble, writing in The Chemical Marketing Reporter

The Ultimate NeuroProtector!

"Vinpocetine is the ultimate neuroprotector. No one wants to think they will suffer a stroke, or any sort of brain trauma. But Vinpocetine provides extremely inexpensive insurance in the event that the worst should happen. Plus, there is ample evidence to suggest Vinpocetine improves normal brain function, and that is always a good thing!"

– Karen Sadowsky Kaufman, M.S., C.C.N.

Improves Brain Function!

"Vinpocetine thins your blood, boosts circulation in your brain, and improves your brain's ability to absorb nutrients, all of which improve brain function."

– Elisa Lottor, Ph.D., N.D., author of Female and Forgetful

Very Safe to Use!

"Vinpocetine has an encouraging safety record, and strong evidence supports its ability to improve brain function."

– Maria Noel Mandile, research editor, Natural Health

Restores Impaired Brain Energy Metabolism!

"Both animal and human studies show Vinpocetine is able to restore impaired brain energy metabolism. Vinpocetine increases ATP synthesis and is especially beneficial for individuals whose dementia may be caused by vascular insufficiency.

...Vinpocetine improves overall cerebral efficiency resulting in brain cells that can better retain information so we can remember more. Vinpocetine has several different effects that have various important effects on cognitive function. The final result of the joint actions is the improvement of overall cognitive function.

These result in benefits for: Dementia, short term memory and learning, and stroke. Vinpocetine also has properties as an anti-platelet aggregation blood thinner. This inhibits blood clotting and aids in the normalization of blood flow. Vinpocetine selectively dilates the cerebral artery, which can be useful for treatment of stroke and aid in the reflow of blood to these areas."

– Jerry Cott, Ph.D., Chief of the Psychopharmacology Research Program at the National Institute of Mental Health at N.I.H.

A Powerful Memory Enhancer!

"Vinpocetine is a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation, stepping up brain cell ATP production and increasing utilization of glucose and oxygen.

Vinpocetine is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders such as memory problems, acute stroke, dizziness and other cerebro-vestibular (inner-ear) problems, and headache.

Vinpocetine is also used to treat acute or chronic ophthalmological diseases of various origin, with visual acuity improving in 70% of the subjects."

– Ward Dean, M.D. and John Morgenthaller, Smart Drugs & Nutrients

Hundreds of Scientific Studies Prove It Works!

"Hundreds of scientific studies on vinpocetine have been published. First and foremost they have shown that its effect is to sharpen mental acuity and memory, both of which tend to dull with age unless we constantly fight back. Vinpocetine...improves both short-term and long-term memory. It enhances alertness and preparedness to handle life's exigencies. It is, to use an old-fashioned term, a mental tonic...

Vinpocetine helps prevent cerebral ischemia (impaired blood flow), and thus hypoxia (lack of oxygen), which can lead to dementia. It also has a neuro-protective effect, helping to prevent damage to the brain's delicate circuitry, and it facilitates cerebral metabolism and energy utilization. It thus affords protection against the spectrum of ills collectively called age-related cognitive decline (ARCD), which can significantly diminish one's quality of life."

– LifeEnhancement.com

High Octane Fuel for the Brain!

"Vinpocetine is high-octane fuel for your brain. It''s so effective against fading mental powers that it''s widely used in nearly 50 countries, including Hungary, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Japan. Doctors in the Americas don''t seem to know much about it. That's a shame, because it's a safe, natural brain booster.

Vinpocetine is one of Nature's most potent antidotes to the forgetfulness, brain fog, and confusion we normally associate with aging. You won't have to worry about losing the mental power you've enjoyed your whole life. It unleashes your full powers of attention, concentration, and memory and puts you in back in control of your mental function."

– Dr. Al Sears, M.D.

Tames Inflammation Without Side Effects!

"In a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center were the first to find that Vinpocetine, a natural product derived from the periwinkle plant, acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent... Results of the study show that vinpocetine greatly reduces inflammation, and, unlike steroids, does not cause severe side effects.

'What is extremely exciting and promising about these findings is vinpocetine's excellent safety profile,' said Chen Yan, Ph.D., associate professor within the Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute at the Medical Center and a senior author of the study. 'Previously, most drugs tested in this area have failed, not because of a lack of efficacy, but because of safety issues. We're very encouraged by these results and believe Vinpocetine has great potential for the treatment of COPD and other inflammatory diseases.'

Vinpocetine is a well-known natural product that was originally discovered nearly 30 years ago and is currently used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders, such as stroke and memory loss, in Europe, Japan and China. The therapy has no evidence of toxicity or noticeable side effects in human patients. Scientists at the University of Rochester hope to reposition this compound as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of COPD, and potentially other inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, otitis media, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and psoriasis in the future."

– University of Rochester Medical Center

Good for Anyone Over 40!

"Who might benefit from Vinpocetine? Anyone over 40. Anyone who has noticed a decrease in memory, alertness, concentration, learning speed, learning ability, neuro-muscular co-ordination and reaction time, vision, hearing, or who suffers from tinnitus. Anyone who suffers from, or is known to be at risk for, various cerebral disorders – cerebral hemorrhage, stroke, senile dementia, transient ischemic attacks, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency, etc. Anyone wishing to use a generally very safe, low side effect, brain metabolism-enhancing, vigilance-enhancing, cognition-activating 'smart drug'."

– James South, M.A., biochemist, editor Optimal Health Review

Works Four Ways to Enhance Cognitive Function

"Studies with vinpocetine show that it works in the brain in the following four ways: enhancing blood circulation in the brain, increasing the production of stored energy in brain cells, improving the brain's utilization of oxygen, and improving the brain's metabolism of glucose. While the causes of common brain disorders are diverse and complex, any agent that can enhance cerebral efficiency overall enhance cognitive function. In the case of vinpocetine, this definitely seems to be the case."

– FoxNews.com, January 19, 2012


Scientific References for Vinpocetine

  1. Summary of Data for Chemical Selection: Vincamine
  2. Bagoly E, Fehér G, Szapáry L The role of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases based in human studies . Orv Hetil. (2007)
  3. Patyar S, et al Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases . Pharmacol Rep. (2011)
  4. Bönöczk P, et al Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine . Brain Res Bull. (2000)
  5. Szakács T, Veres Z, Vereczkey L In vitro-in vivo correlation of the pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine . Pol J Pharmacol. (2001)
  6. Grandt R, et al Vinpocetine pharmacokinetics in elderly subjects . Arzneimittelforschung. (1989)
  7. Vereczkey L, et al Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine in humans . Arzneimittelforschung. (1979)
  8. Sozański T, et al Omeprazole does not change the oral bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine in rats . Pharmacol Rep. (2011)
  9. Lohmann A, et al Bioavailability of vinpocetine and interference of the time of application with food intake . Arzneimittelforschung. (1992)
  10. Cui SX, et al Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system containing vinpocetine . Drug Dev Ind Pharm. (2009)
  11. Xu H, et al Optimized preparation of vinpocetine proliposomes by a novel method and in vivo evaluation of its pharmacokinetics in New Zealand rabbits . J Control Release. (2009)
  12. Miskolczi P, et al Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine (Cavinton) and apovincaminic acid . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (1987)
  13. Chen J, et al Determination of apovincaminic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and ultraviolet detection . J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2006)
  14. Vereczkey L Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of vincamine and related compounds . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. (1985)
  15. El-Laithy HM, Shoukry O, Mahran LG Novel sugar esters proniosomes for transdermal delivery of vinpocetine: preclinical and clinical studies . Eur J Pharm Biopharm. (2011)
  16. Gulyás B, et al Drug distribution in man: a positron emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled neuroprotective drug vinpocetine . Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. (2002)
  17. Miskolczi P, et al Pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine and its main metabolite apovincaminic acid before and after the chronic oral administration of vinpocetine to humans . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. (1990)
  18. Vlase L, Bodiu B, Leucuta SE Pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of two vinpocetine tablet formulations in healthy volunteers by using the metabolite apovincaminic acid as pharmacokinetic parameter . Arzneimittelforschung. (2005)
  19. Gulyás B, et al Brain uptake and plasma metabolism of {11C}vinpocetine: a preliminary PET study in a cynomolgus monkey . J Neuroimaging. (1999)
  20. Gulyás B, et al PET studies on the brain uptake and regional distribution of {11C}vinpocetine in human subjects . Acta Neurol Scand. (2002)
  21. Vas A, et al Clinical and non-clinical investigations using positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler methods on the neuroprotective drug vinpocetine: a summary of evidences . J Neurol Sci. (2002)
  22. Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study
  23. Hua L, et al Preparation, evaluation, and NMR characterization of vinpocetine microemulsion for transdermal delivery . Drug Dev Ind Pharm. (2004)
  24. Chiu PJ, et al Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta . Am J Hypertens. (1988)
  25. Hagiwara M, Endo T, Hidaka H Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle . Biochem Pharmacol. (1984)
  26. Rosdy B, Balázs M, Szporny L Biochemical effects of ethyl apovincaminate . Arzneimittelforschung. (1976)
  27. Zhou X, et al Vinpocetine is a potent blocker of rat NaV1.8 tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels . J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (2003)
  28. Vinpocetine is as potent as phenytoin to block voltage-gated Na+ channels in rat cortical neurons
  29. Erdo SA, et al Vincamine and vincanol are potent blockers of voltage-gated Na+ channels . Eur J Pharmacol. (1996)
  30. Tretter L, Adam-Vizi V The neuroprotective drug vinpocetine prevents veratridine-induced {Na+}i and {Ca2+}i rise in synaptosomes . Neuroreport. (1998)
  31. Kaneko S, Takahashi H, Satoh M The use of Xenopus oocytes to evaluate drugs affecting brain Ca2+ channels: effects of bifemelane and several nootropic agents . Eur J Pharmacol. (1990)
  32. Vas A, et al Human positron emission tomography with oral 11C-vinpocetine . Orv Hetil. (2003)
  33. Sitges M, Nekrassov V Vinpocetine selectively inhibits neurotransmitter release triggered by sodium channel activation . Neurochem Res. (1999)
  34. Solntseva EI, Bukanova JV Enhancement of low-threshold A-current of the neuronal membrane by vinpocetine . Membr Cell Biol. (2000)
  35. Solntseva EI, Bukanova JV, Skrebitsky VG The nootropic drug vinpocetine modulates different types of potassium currents in molluscan neurons . Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. (2001)
  36. Bukanova YuV, Solntseva EI Nootropic agent vinpocetine blocks delayed rectified potassium currents more strongly than high-threshold calcium currents . Neurosci Behav Physiol. (1998)
  37. Jeon KI, et al Vinpocetine inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent inflammation via an IKK-dependent but PDE-independent mechanism . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2010)
  38. Tárnok K, et al Effects of Vinpocetine on mitochondrial function and neuroprotection in primary cortical neurons . Neurochem Int. (2008)
  39. Pereira C, Agostinho P, Oliveira CR Vinpocetine attenuates the metabolic dysfunction induced by amyloid beta-peptides in PC12 cells . Free Radic Res. (2000)
  40. Szilágyi G, et al Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study . J Neurol Sci. (2005)
  41. Szakáll S, et al Cerebral effects of a single dose of intravenous vinpocetine in chronic stroke patients: a PET study . J Neuroimaging. (1998)
  42. The Effect of a Single-Dose Intravenous Vinpocetine on Chronic Stroke Patients. A PET Study
  43. The effect of an acute infusion of vincamine and ethyl apovincaminate on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers
  44. Bönöczk P, Panczel G, Nagy Z Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study . Eur J Ultrasound. (2002)
  45. Kemény V, et al Acute and chronic effects of vinpocetine on cerebral hemodynamics and neuropsychological performance in multi-infarct patients . J Clin Pharmacol. (2005)
  46. Kuzuya F Effects of vinpocetine on platelet aggregability and erythrocyte deformability . Ther Hung. (1985)
  47. Osawa M, Maruyama S Effects of TCV-3B (vinpocetine) on blood viscosity in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases . Ther Hung. (1985)
  48. Szobor A, Klein M Ethyl apovincaminate therapy in neurovascular diseases . Arzneimittelforschung. (1976)
  49. Gaál L, Molnár P Effect of vinpocetine on noradrenergic neurons in rat locus coeruleus . Eur J Pharmacol. (1990)
  50. Ishihara K, et al Idebenone and vinpocetine augment long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices in the guinea pig . Neuropharmacology. (1989)
  51. Nyakas C, et al Neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine and its major metabolite cis-apovincaminic acid on NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in a rat entorhinal cortex lesion model . CNS Neurosci Ther. (2009)
  52. DeNoble VJ, et al Vinpocetine: nootropic effects on scopolamine-induced and hypoxia-induced retrieval deficits of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats . Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1986)
  53. Deshmukh R, et al Amelioration of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by vinpocetine -- a PDE1 inhibitor . Eur J Pharmacol. (2009)
  54. Bhatti JZ, Hindmarch I Vinpocetine effects on cognitive impairments produced by flunitrazepam . Int Clin Psychopharmacol. (1987)
  55. DeNoble VJ Vinpocetine enhances retrieval of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats . Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1987)
  56. Subhan Z, Hindmarch I Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (1985)
  57. Amen DG, et al Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation . J Psychoactive Drugs. (2011)
  58. Polich J, Gloria R Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory . Hum Psychopharmacol. (2001)
  59. Effect of vinpocetine on monoamine receptor binding and synaptosomal uptake in the rat brain
  60. Chikvaidze VN, Nikuradze VO The role of adrenoreceptors in the mechanism of pharmacological action of cavinton . Ukr Biokhim Zh. (1987)
  61. Trejo F, Nekrassov V, Sitges M Characterization of vinpocetine effects on DA and DOPAC release in striatal isolated nerve endings . Brain Res. (2001)
  62. Sitges M, et al Characterization of phenytoin, carbamazepine, vinpocetine and clorgyline simultaneous effects on sodium channels and catecholamine metabolism in rat striatal nerve endings . Neurochem Res. (2009)
  63. Kiss B, Cai NS, Erdö SL Vinpocetine preferentially antagonizes quisqualate/AMPA receptor responses: evidence from release and ligand binding studies . Eur J Pharmacol. (1991)
  64. Westphalen RI, Stadlin A Dopamine uptake blockers nullify methamphetamine-induced decrease in dopamine uptake and plasma membrane potential in rat striatal synaptosomes . Ann N Y Acad Sci. (2000)
  65. Herrera-Mundo N, Sitges M Vinpocetine and α-tocopherol prevent the increase in DA and oxidative stress induced by 3-NPA in striatum isolated nerve endings . J Neurochem. (2013)
  66. Zaitone SA, Abo-Elmatty DM, Elshazly SM Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats . Indian J Pharmacol. (2012)
  67. Erdö SL, et al Vinpocetin protects against excitotoxic cell death in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex . Eur J Pharmacol. (1990)
  68. Biró K, Kárpáti E, Szporny L Protective activity of ethyl apovincaminate on ischaemic anoxia of the brain . Arzneimittelforschung. (1976)
  69. King GA Protective effects of vinpocetine and structurally related drugs on the lethal consequences of hypoxia in mice . Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. (1987)
  70. Kaneko, S.  Effects of several cerebroprotective drugs on nmda channel function : evaluation using xenopus oocytes and 3hmk-801 binding
  71. Sitges M, Galván E, Nekrassov V Vinpocetine blockade of sodium channels inhibits the rise in sodium and calcium induced by 4-aminopyridine in synaptosomes . Neurochem Int. (2005)
  72. Sitges M, Chiu LM, Nekrassov V Single and combined effects of carbamazepine and vinpocetine on depolarization-induced changes in Na+, Ca2+ and glutamate release in hippocampal isolated nerve endings . Neurochem Int. (2006)
  73. Sitges M, et al Effects of carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate and vinpocetine on Na+ channel-mediated release of {3H}glutamate in hippocampal nerve endings . Neuropharmacology. (2007)
  74. Sitges M, Guarneros A, Nekrassov V Effects of carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and vinpocetine on the presynaptic Ca2+ channel-mediated release of {3H}glutamate: comparison with the Na+ channel-mediated release . Neuropharmacology. (2007)
  75. Nekrassov V, Sitges M Comparison of acute, chronic and post-treatment effects of carbamazepine and vinpocetine on hearing loss and seizures induced by 4-aminopyridine . Clin Neurophysiol. (2008)
  76. Sitges M, et al Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs . Epilepsy Res. (2011)
  77. Nekrassov V, Sitges M Vinpocetine inhibits the epileptic cortical activity and auditory alterations induced by pentylenetetrazole in the guinea pig in vivo . Epilepsy Res. (2004)
  78. Sitges M, Nekrassov V Vinpocetine prevents 4-aminopyridine-induced changes in the EEG, the auditory brainstem responses and hearing . Clin Neurophysiol. (2004)
  79. Gulyás B, et al {11C}vinpocetine: a prospective peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand for primate PET studies . J Neurol Sci. (2005)
  80. Banati RB Visualising microglial activation in vivo . Glia. (2002)
  81. Gulyás B, et al Evolution of microglial activation in ischaemic core and peri-infarct regions after stroke: a PET study with the TSPO molecular imaging biomarker {((11))C}vinpocetine . J Neurol Sci. (2012)
  82. Medina AE Vinpocetine as a potent antiinflammatory agent . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2010)
  83. Zhao YY, et al TSPO-specific ligand Vinpocetine exerts a neuroprotective effect by suppressing microglial inflammation . Neuron Glia Biol. (2011)
  84. Gulyás B, et al Age and disease related changes in the translocator protein (TSPO) system in the human brain: positron emission tomography measurements with {11C}vinpocetine . Neuroimage. (2011)
  85. Cai Y, Li JD, Yan C Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation . Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2013)
  86. Chen J, et al Hypertension does not account for the accelerated atherosclerosis and development of aneurysms in male apolipoprotein e/endothelial nitric oxide synthase double knockout mice . Circulation. (2001)
  87. Cai Y, et al Vinpocetine suppresses pathological vascular remodeling by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration . J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (2012)
  88. Abdel Salam OM, Oraby FH, Hassan NS Vinpocetine ameliorates acute hepatic damage caused by administration of carbon tetrachloride in rats . Acta Biol Hung. (2007)
  89. Nekrassov V, Sitges M Vinpocetine protects from aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced hearing loss in guinea pig in vivo . Brain Res. (2000)
  90. Huang EW, et al Vinpocetine inhibits breast cancer cells growth in vitro and in vivo . Apoptosis. (2012)
  91. Lim CC, Cook PJ, James IM The effect of an acute infusion of vincamine and ethyl apovincaminate on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers . Br J Clin Pharmacol. (1980)
  92. Amen DG, et al Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation . J Psychoactive Drugs. (2011)
  93. Chukanova EI Efficacy of cavinton in the treatment of patients with chronic blood flow insufficiency. Russian multicenter clinical-epidemiological program "CALIPSO" . Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2010)
  94. Vorob'eva OV, Tamarova ES Efficacy of vinpotropile in the therapy of initial signs of cerebrovascular pathology . Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2010)
  95. Zakharov VV Vinpotropil in the treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy with cognitive impairment without dementia . Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2010)
  96. Subhan Z, Hindmarch I Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (1985)

What our Customers are saying about Vinpocetine...

The Day I Tried Vinpocetine My Memory Was Better!

MW_VIN"I recently turned 50, which is not a bad thing except that I began having "senior moments", where I'd stand in the center of the room trying to remember why I was in there. And, I started losing things, such as looking for my pot holders or keys and finding them in an unusual place...I was walking around with items in my hands and putting them down in inappropriate places. I'd always been very mentally sharp, with a great memory and the ability to multitask without losing track and to get everything done, and done efficiently and well. Now I spent half of my time looking for things. Something had to change.

I tried various "memory" products, but I was unimpressed. The day I tried Vinpocetine my memory was better. After two days I could actually add a column of figures in my head, and remember multiple phone numbers without looking them up. I was impressed, this is the one product that worked. I mentioned this to my pre-menopausal and post-menopausal friends and they were astonished, as it had been many years since they could add a column of complex numbers without writing them down. They tried Vinpocetine and they were as impressed and excited as I was...and still am."

– M.W., Nevada City, CA

Ability to Focus on Complex Challenges Restored; Got a Promotion and Raise!

HH_VIN"As I approached 50 years of age there was no more denying it; my short term memory was suffering. I fumbled daily (sometimes hourly) trying to remember the events of just two days prior! In fact, I could vaguely remember the past two weeks. Not only had this become extremely frustrating, it was downright humiliating. Then, nothing short of a miracle happened!

While researching memory problems on the internet, I came across information on Vinpocetine from Targeted Nutrients and decided to try it. To be honest; I didn't think it would work. But after just one week of taking Vinpocetine, I was shocked with my results. Not only had my memory improved, but repetitive menial tasks became second nature again! To my surprise, I was able to focus on complex challenges at work with ease. My production and managerial skills accelerated to levels I had not experienced in several years. Do to my new found vigor, I even received a promotion at work...and with a substantial raise!

Thank you Targeted Nutrients for giving me my memory and problem solving skills back!

P.S. I'm so impressed with the results of Vinpocetine, I've ordered several other products with similar mind-blowing results!"

– Harold H., Barstow, CA

Stays More Focused at Work

"This is to let you know the Vinpocetine has helped me during my working hours to stay more focused and on track as I do a lot of data entry and special projects. Thanks so much for this product!"

– Bee in Oregon

Quickness of Mind and Better Recall

"I read about Vinpocetine and decided to try it. My problem was not being able to quickly recall names. I tried Vinpocetine and within one month I noticed a quickness of mind to recall and to think creatively. It's a great product!"

– G.M., Hot Springs, AR

Uplifting...Mentally Stimulating...Felt Better After the Very First Capsule!

CW_VIN"Last year, I was under a lot of pressure at work and at college. I wasn't enjoying my job, and was extremely stressed. Worst of all, I was always mentally exhausted. I got a D for the first time in one of my college classes, because I just couldn't focus or concentrate like I needed to. My clarity of thought was gone. That's when my uncle told me about Vinpocetine from Targeted Nutrients. He said it had helped him with the severe mental fatigue (he called it 'brain fog') he had experienced directly after a surgery. So I got some Vinpocetine and started taking it. Right away, after the very first capsule, I felt better. Vinpocetine actually worked better than anything the doctors had given me - especially since all they prescribed were antibiotics, even though I wasn't sick, just mentally fatigued. The Vinpocetine had a very uplifting, mentally stimulating effect. It allowed me to think more clearly and focus on the complex issues I had to deal with at the time, both at college and at work. I only took the Vinpocetine a few times a week over a period of several months. But it really made a big difference, and believe me I wouldn't hesitate to use it again if I needed it."

– C.W., Denver, CO

Better Memory, Renewed Confidence

"I'm a 77 years old man who began to notice some time ago that it was a bit difficult to remember names of people, movies and ages of my next of kin. I was reading about ways to improve memory and saw an article on Vinpocetine. Right away it caught my interest. I immediately ordered 3 bottles. After a month of using the pills, I began to realize that I was able to remember things far more easily. What was difficult in the past now became clear. I was impressed and thrilled because it gave me a feeling of renewed confidence."

– Dan M.

Improved Memory and Retention

"I'm 73 years old and work full time. I used Vinpocetine for 3 months and noticed an improvement in my memory and retention ability. I recommend Vinpocetine along with vitamin and mineral supplements to stay healthy and mentally alert."

– Gus N., TX

Increased Clarity of Mind Even Under Strenuous Circumstances

Linda_VIN"I've been taking Vinpocetine for over a year now. I've noticed that I have clarity even when I overextend myself. I decided to start taking it after I read your article. I'm now 60 and my desire is to keep my focus. We seem to be pressured on all sides. My husband has not had work in a year as he is an energy consultant in coal bed methane which has gone flat with many out of work. Thank the Lord we are getting work in geothermal starting this month and we are thankful. Getting a good night sleep is also very important. My husband also takes Vinpocetine and feels it has helped him keep focused. Mostly I believe we are better overall and believe this is a great product and will continue to use it. I was visiting with a friend last week and she was complaining about her memory and Paul told her to order your product; based on our experience we believe it will clear her memory and bring back her recall with great efficiency."

– Linda S.

"Brain Fog" Disappeared

"It seemed to help me think clearly. It took away the brain 'fog' and made me feel in control (wonderful to be free to think and thus able to perform tasks more quickly). It was so nice, I wondered if it was really the medicine, since I didn't take it for long. I should try it again, to be sure. Maybe I was just having a good day and ate something healthy, which helped. I had a few days like it, before, but very few."

– Ruth W.

Restored Lost Memory After Surgical Anesthesia Damaged Brain!

SS_VIN"After undergoing two surgeries requiring anesthesia, in a three-day period, I couldn't think straight any longer. The anesthesia damaged my brain. I couldn't remember specific names of common items, such as a drinking glass, chair, toaster, pants, car, etc. It was extremely embarrassing because it left me sounding like a bumbling idiot. Not only was I was left unable to communicate clearly with my family and friends, but also my business customers.

The doctors were no help at all. I think they were afraid I wanted to sue them. All I wanted was my memory back. So I started searching for nutritional supplements that help restore brain function. And I came across information about Vinpocetine, explaining how it helps protect and even heal the brain by boosting oxygen-rich blood flow, increasing ATP production in brain cells, stimulating communication between brain cells and giving antioxidant protection to the cells. I started taking it daily and within a few days my memory started returning to normal.

Within a few weeks, I could easily re-call the names of common items again, without mentally struggling to do so. And I was no longer fumbling for words when I had to talk to people. My friends, family members and customers could understand me clearly again. You don't realize how important it is to be able to remember common words or the names of items, until it's taken away from you. It really made me think about the things we take for granted.

At any rate, I'm grateful to God that I found out about Vinpocetine. It gave me my life back, particularly in regards to my ability to think clearly and speak with clarity. And I'd certainly recommend it to anyone suffering from memory problems."

– S.S., CA

Definitely Noticed the Difference!

"This product has really helped me...I have definitely noticed the difference since taking Vinpocetine. Thank you very much!"

– Jeff B., Augusta, SC

90 Year Old Says Vinpocetine "Very Helpful"

"Yes I have used your product called Vinpocetine and found it to be very helpful to me. I am ninety years of age."

– W.J. M., San Diego, CA

"Big Change in My Life" Thanks to Vinpocetine, Says 93-Year Old!

"I've been taking Vinpocetine for two months and I have noticed a big change in my life. I am more alert and a lot less forgetful. People don't believe I'm ninety three years old! I am looking forward to even more improvements in the quality of my life due to using Vinpocetine."

– W. B., Bloomington, IL

Supplement Facts
  Supplement Facts
  Serving Size: 1 Capsule                   Servings Per Container: 90
   Amount Per Serving  % Daily Value
  Vinpocetine10 mg**
  ** Daily Value (DV) not established.
  Other Ingredients: Maltodextrin, Magnesium Stearate, Silicon Dioxide, Gelatin (Capsule).

Suggested Use: Take one capsule up to three times daily with food.

Vinpocetine has been shown through research to be a powerful memory enhancer. It supports and enhances brain metabolism by increasing the cerebral synthesis of ATP and improving the utilization of oxygen. It also has been shown through research to increase the synthesis of neurotransmitters that affect critical brain functions such as memory recall, concentration, mental stamina, alertness and mood.*

Cautions: Pregnant or nursing women should consult their physician before using. Keep out of the reach of children. Store in a cool, dry place with lid tightly closed.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.